The upper Douro Valley in northeastern Portugal is one of the great historic wine regions.
The vine has been growth here since antiquity and the Romans made wine on the hilly banks of the Douro River throughout their long occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. Later, following the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal in the 12th century, the country became an important exporter of wine. However it was not until the mid-17th century, than the Douro Valley became the source of what we know today as Port.
It was the Treaty of Windsor, signed by England and Portugal in 1386, which sowed the seeds for the emergence of this great classic wine and the transformation of the Douro Valley into one of the most renowned of the world's wine regions. The treaty established a close alliance and a strong trading relationship between the two countries. Many English merchants settled in Portugal where the treaty had awarded them special privileges and by the late 1400s shipments of Portuguese wine to England had become substantial. In 1654 a new trade agreement created even more favourable conditions for English and Scottish merchants living in Portugal, many of whom had their homes in the northern harbour city of Viana do Castelo or the nearby town of Monção. From England they brought salted cod (known as bacalhau) as well as wool and cotton cloth. In return they shipped out Portuguese agricultural produce including the thin, astringent wine of the coastal Minho region known as 'Red Portugal'.
Two decades later the trade in Portuguese wine received further encouragement. A blockade of the shipment of English goods to France, imposed in 1667 by its first minister Colbert, caused the English King Charles II to retaliate by prohibiting the import of French wine. The English wine trade was forced to look elsewhere for its supplies. The British merchants at Viana do Castelo seized the opportunity. However they soon found that the harsh wines of the Minho did not suit the English palate and began to look further inland for wines that were more to the consumer's liking.
It was in the remote hills of the upper Douro Valley that they found what they sought. Sheltered by the mountains from the damp westerly winds blowing off the Atlantic which brought rainfall to the coastal vineyards of the Minho, the Douro with its scorching summer heat and arid climate produced the robust and heady wines that the market wanted. However the English merchants were unable to carry the wine overland from the Douro Valley to Viana do Castelo. The only way it could be transported to the coast was by boat down the River Douro. One by one, the English merchants moved from Viana and established their businesses in the large mercantile city of Oporto a few miles from the river's mouth. By 1710, most had established their 'lodges', or warehouses, in Vila Nova de Gaia on the south bank of the Douro, opposite the old city centre of Oporto, where they remain to this day.
It was from the Oporto, the city from which it was shipped, that the powerful wine of the Douro Valley took its name. Vinho do Porto in Portuguese, meaning 'wine of Oporto', was translated into English as Port Wine or simply Port. The earliest known record of wine being shipped under this name dates from 1678.
At that time, Port was not the rich, fortified wine that we know today. Most of it was dry, although a small amount of brandy was often added prior to shipment to ensure that it remained in good condition until it reached the consumer's table.
The 18th century saw shipments of Port grow rapidly as the rich, red wine of the Douro Valley gained in popularity. The Methuen Treaty of 1703 further encouraged the trade in Port by setting a much lower rate of English duty for Portuguese than for French wines. The strong demand for Port brought great prosperity to the Douro Valley as well as to the English merchants. However, as time passed, it also encouraged speculation and fraud. When shipments of Port fell sharply in the 1750s, these became more widespread.
In 1756, the first minister of Portugal, the powerful and influential Marquis of Pombal, introduced a series of draconian reforms. He imposed a state monopoly over the sale of Port and its shipment to England and Brazil as well as the production of brandy used for fortification. He defined the boundaries of the Port vineyard area, marking them out with over three hundred stone posts known as 'marcos pombalinos'. In 1757 he carried out the first detailed classification of the vineyards of the Douro, grading them according to quality and establishing prices for their production. The best wines were designated as 'vinhos de feitoria' and allowed to be shipped to the demanding English market while the lesser 'vinhos de ramo' could only be sold in Portugal. Measures were taken to do away with the fraudulent practices that had become commonplace, such as the addition of elderberry juice to give colour and the appearance of quality to poor wines.
These visionary reforms effectively established Port as the world's first appellation d'origine contrôlée. Although initially unpopular with both producers and merchants, who resented the high handed manner in which they were sometimes carried out, they heralded a new era of growth and affluence. The growing importance of the wealthy Brazilian market contributed to this prosperity.